Let us go backward a few hours, and place ourselves in Westminster
Abbey, at four o'clock in the morning of this memorable Coronation
Day. We are not without company; for although it is still night,
we find the torch-lighted galleries already filling up with people
who are well content to sit still and wait seven or eight hours
till the time shall come for them to see what they may not hope to
see twice in their lives--the coronation of a King. Yes, London
and Westminster have been astir ever since the warning guns boomed
at three o'clock, and already crowds of untitled rich folk who
have bought the privilege of trying to find sitting-room in the
galleries are flocking in at the entrances reserved for their sort.
The hours drag along tediously enough. All stir has ceased for
some time, for every gallery has long ago been packed. We may
sit, now, and look and think at our leisure. We have glimpses,
here and there and yonder, through the dim cathedral twilight, of
portions of many galleries and balconies, wedged full with other
people, the other portions of these galleries and balconies being
cut off from sight by intervening pillars and architectural
projections. We have in view the whole of the great north
transept--empty, and waiting for England's privileged ones. We
see also the ample area or platform, carpeted with rich stuffs,
whereon the throne stands. The throne occupies the centre of the
platform, and is raised above it upon an elevation of four steps.
Within the seat of the throne is enclosed a rough flat rock--the
stone of Scone--which many generations of Scottish kings sat on to
be crowned, and so it in time became holy enough to answer a like
purpose for English monarchs. Both the throne and its footstool
are covered with cloth of gold.
Stillness reigns, the torches blink dully, the time drags heavily.
But at last the lagging daylight asserts itself, the torches are
extinguished, and a mellow radiance suffuses the great spaces.
All features of the noble building are distinct now, but soft and
dreamy, for the sun is lightly veiled with clouds.
At seven o'clock the first break in the drowsy monotony occurs;
for on the stroke of this hour the first peeress enters the
transept, clothed like Solomon for splendour, and is conducted to
her appointed place by an official clad in satins and velvets,
whilst a duplicate of him gathers up the lady's long train,
follows after, and, when the lady is seated, arranges the train
across her lap for her. He then places her footstool according to
her desire, after which he puts her coronet where it will be
convenient to her hand when the time for the simultaneous
coroneting of the nobles shall arrive.
By this time the peeresses are flowing in in a glittering stream,
and the satin-clad officials are flitting and glinting everywhere,
seating them and making them comfortable. The scene is animated
enough now. There is stir and life, and shifting colour
everywhere. After a time, quiet reigns again; for the peeresses
are all come and are all in their places, a solid acre or such a
matter, of human flowers, resplendent in variegated colours, and
frosted like a Milky Way with diamonds. There are all ages here:
brown, wrinkled, white-haired dowagers who are able to go back,
and still back, down the stream of time, and recall the crowning
of Richard III. and the troublous days of that old forgotten age;
and there are handsome middle-aged dames; and lovely and gracious
young matrons; and gentle and beautiful young girls, with beaming
eyes and fresh complexions, who may possibly put on their jewelled
coronets awkwardly when the great time comes; for the matter will
be new to them, and their excitement will be a sore hindrance.
Still, this may not happen, for the hair of all these ladies has
been arranged with a special view to the swift and successful
lodging of the crown in its place when the signal comes.
We have seen that this massed array of peeresses is sown thick
with diamonds, and we also see that it is a marvellous spectacle--
but now we are about to be astonished in earnest. About nine, the
clouds suddenly break away and a shaft of sunshine cleaves the
mellow atmosphere, and drifts slowly along the ranks of ladies;
and every rank it touches flames into a dazzling splendour of
many-coloured fires, and we tingle to our finger-tips with the
electric thrill that is shot through us by the surprise and the
beauty of the spectacle! Presently a special envoy from some
distant corner of the Orient, marching with the general body of
foreign ambassadors, crosses this bar of sunshine, and we catch
our breath, the glory that streams and flashes and palpitates
about him is so overpowering; for he is crusted from head to heel
with gems, and his slightest movement showers a dancing radiance
all around him.
Let us change the tense for convenience. The time drifted along--
one hour--two hours--two hours and a half; then the deep booming
of artillery told that the King and his grand procession had
arrived at last; so the waiting multitude rejoiced. All knew that
a further delay must follow, for the King must be prepared and
robed for the solemn ceremony; but this delay would be pleasantly
occupied by the assembling of the peers of the realm in their
stately robes. These were conducted ceremoniously to their seats,
and their coronets placed conveniently at hand; and meanwhile the
multitude in the galleries were alive with interest, for most of
them were beholding for the first time, dukes, earls, and barons,
whose names had been historical for five hundred years. When all
were finally seated, the spectacle from the galleries and all
coigns of vantage was complete; a gorgeous one to look upon and to
Now the robed and mitred great heads of the church, and their
attendants, filed in upon the platform and took their appointed
places; these were followed by the Lord Protector and other great
officials, and these again by a steel-clad detachment of the Guard.
There was a waiting pause; then, at a signal, a triumphant peal of
music burst forth, and Tom Canty, clothed in a long robe of cloth
of gold, appeared at a door, and stepped upon the platform. The
entire multitude rose, and the ceremony of the Recognition ensued.
Then a noble anthem swept the Abbey with its rich waves of sound;
and thus heralded and welcomed, Tom Canty was conducted to the
throne. The ancient ceremonies went on, with impressive
solemnity, whilst the audience gazed; and as they drew nearer and
nearer to completion, Tom Canty grew pale, and still paler, and a
deep and steadily deepening woe and despondency settled down upon
his spirits and upon his remorseful heart.
At last the final act was at hand. The Archbishop of Canterbury
lifted up the crown of England from its cushion and held it out
over the trembling mock-King's head. In the same instant a
rainbow-radiance flashed along the spacious transept; for with one
impulse every individual in the great concourse of nobles lifted a
coronet and poised it over his or her head--and paused in that attitude.
A deep hush pervaded the Abbey. At this impressive moment, a
startling apparition intruded upon the scene--an apparition
observed by none in the absorbed multitude, until it suddenly
appeared, moving up the great central aisle. It was a boy,
bareheaded, ill shod, and clothed in coarse plebeian garments that
were falling to rags. He raised his hand with a solemnity which
ill comported with his soiled and sorry aspect, and delivered this
note of warning--
"I forbid you to set the crown of England upon that forfeited
head. I am the King!"
In an instant several indignant hands were laid upon the boy; but
in the same instant Tom Canty, in his regal vestments, made a
swift step forward, and cried out in a ringing voice--
"Loose him and forbear! He IS the King!"
A sort of panic of astonishment swept the assemblage, and they
partly rose in their places and stared in a bewildered way at one
another and at the chief figures in this scene, like persons who
wondered whether they were awake and in their senses, or asleep
and dreaming. The Lord Protector was as amazed as the rest, but
quickly recovered himself, and exclaimed in a voice of authority--
"Mind not his Majesty, his malady is upon him again--seize the vagabond!"
He would have been obeyed, but the mock-King stamped his foot and
"On your peril! Touch him not, he is the King!"
The hands were withheld; a paralysis fell upon the house; no one
moved, no one spoke; indeed, no one knew how to act or what to
say, in so strange and surprising an emergency. While all minds
were struggling to right themselves, the boy still moved steadily
forward, with high port and confident mien; he had never halted
from the beginning; and while the tangled minds still floundered
helplessly, he stepped upon the platform, and the mock-King ran
with a glad face to meet him; and fell on his knees before him and said--
"Oh, my lord the King, let poor Tom Canty be first to swear fealty
to thee, and say, 'Put on thy crown and enter into thine own again!'"
The Lord Protector's eye fell sternly upon the new-comer's face;
but straightway the sternness vanished away, and gave place to an
expression of wondering surprise. This thing happened also to the
other great officers. They glanced at each other, and retreated a
step by a common and unconscious impulse. The thought in each
mind was the same: "What a strange resemblance!"
The Lord Protector reflected a moment or two in perplexity, then
he said, with grave respectfulness--
"By your favour, sir, I desire to ask certain questions which--"
"I will answer them, my lord."
The Duke asked him many questions about the Court, the late King,
the prince, the princesses--the boy answered them correctly and
without hesitating. He described the rooms of state in the
palace, the late King's apartments, and those of the Prince of Wales.
It was strange; it was wonderful; yes, it was unaccountable--so
all said that heard it. The tide was beginning to turn, and Tom
Canty's hopes to run high, when the Lord Protector shook his head
"It is true it is most wonderful--but it is no more than our lord
the King likewise can do." This remark, and this reference to
himself as still the King, saddened Tom Canty, and he felt his
hopes crumbling from under him. "These are not PROOFS," added
The tide was turning very fast now, very fast indeed--but in the
wrong direction; it was leaving poor Tom Canty stranded on the
throne, and sweeping the other out to sea. The Lord Protector
communed with himself--shook his head--the thought forced itself
upon him, "It is perilous to the State and to us all, to entertain
so fateful a riddle as this; it could divide the nation and
undermine the throne." He turned and said--
"Sir Thomas, arrest this--No, hold!" His face lighted, and he
confronted the ragged candidate with this question--
"Where lieth the Great Seal? Answer me this truly, and the riddle
is unriddled; for only he that was Prince of Wales CAN so answer!
On so trivial a thing hang a throne and a dynasty!"
It was a lucky thought, a happy thought. That it was so
considered by the great officials was manifested by the silent
applause that shot from eye to eye around their circle in the form
of bright approving glances. Yes, none but the true prince could
dissolve the stubborn mystery of the vanished Great Seal--this
forlorn little impostor had been taught his lesson well, but here
his teachings must fail, for his teacher himself could not answer
THAT question--ah, very good, very good indeed; now we shall be
rid of this troublesome and perilous business in short order! And
so they nodded invisibly and smiled inwardly with satisfaction,
and looked to see this foolish lad stricken with a palsy of guilty
confusion. How surprised they were, then, to see nothing of the
sort happen--how they marvelled to hear him answer up promptly, in
a confident and untroubled voice, and say--
"There is nought in this riddle that is difficult." Then, without
so much as a by-your-leave to anybody, he turned and gave this
command, with the easy manner of one accustomed to doing such
things: "My Lord St. John, go you to my private cabinet in the
palace--for none knoweth the place better than you--and, close
down to the floor, in the left corner remotest from the door that
opens from the ante-chamber, you shall find in the wall a brazen
nail-head; press upon it and a little jewel-closet will fly open
which not even you do know of--no, nor any sould else in all the
world but me and the trusty artisan that did contrive it for me.
The first thing that falleth under your eye will be the Great Seal--fetch
All the company wondered at this speech, and wondered still more
to see the little mendicant pick out this peer without hesitancy
or apparent fear of mistake, and call him by name with such a
placidly convincing air of having known him all his life. The
peer was almost surprised into obeying. He even made a movement
as if to go, but quickly recovered his tranquil attitude and
confessed his blunder with a blush. Tom Canty turned upon him and
"Why dost thou hesitate? Hast not heard the King's command? Go!"
The Lord St. John made a deep obeisance--and it was observed that
it was a significantly cautious and non-committal one, it not
being delivered at either of the kings, but at the neutral ground
about half-way between the two--and took his leave.
Now began a movement of the gorgeous particles of that official
group which was slow, scarcely perceptible, and yet steady and
persistent--a movement such as is observed in a kaleidoscope that
is turned slowly, whereby the components of one splendid cluster
fall away and join themselves to another--a movement which, little
by little, in the present case, dissolved the glittering crowd
that stood about Tom Canty and clustered it together again in the
neighbourhood of the new-comer. Tom Canty stood almost alone.
Now ensued a brief season of deep suspense and waiting--during
which even the few faint hearts still remaining near Tom Canty
gradually scraped together courage enough to glide, one by one,
over to the majority. So at last Tom Canty, in his royal robes
and jewels, stood wholly alone and isolated from the world, a
conspicuous figure, occupying an eloquent vacancy.
Now the Lord St. John was seen returning. As he advanced up the
mid-aisle the interest was so intense that the low murmur of
conversation in the great assemblage died out and was succeeded by
a profound hush, a breathless stillness, through which his
footfalls pulsed with a dull and distant sound. Every eye was
fastened upon him as he moved along. He reached the platform,
paused a moment, then moved toward Tom Canty with a deep
obeisance, and said--
"Sire, the Seal is not there!"
A mob does not melt away from the presence of a plague-patient
with more haste than the band of pallid and terrified courtiers
melted away from the presence of the shabby little claimant of the
Crown. In a moment he stood all alone, without friend or
supporter, a target upon which was concentrated a bitter fire of
scornful and angry looks. The Lord Protector called out fiercely--
"Cast the beggar into the street, and scourge him through the
town--the paltry knave is worth no more consideration!"
Officers of the guard sprang forward to obey, but Tom Canty waved
them off and said--
"Back! Whoso touches him perils his life!"
The Lord Protector was perplexed in the last degree. He said to
the Lord St. John--
"Searched you well?--but it boots not to ask that. It doth seem
passing strange. Little things, trifles, slip out of one's ken,
and one does not think it matter for surprise; but how so bulky a
thing as the Seal of England can vanish away and no man be able to
get track of it again--a massy golden disk--"
Tom Canty, with beaming eyes, sprang forward and shouted--
"Hold, that is enough! Was it round?--and thick?--and had it
letters and devices graved upon it?--yes? Oh, NOW I know what
this Great Seal is that there's been such worry and pother about.
An' ye had described it to me, ye could have had it three weeks
ago. Right well I know where it lies; but it was not I that put it there--first."
"Who, then, my liege?" asked the Lord Protector.
"He that stands there--the rightful King of England. And he shall
tell you himself where it lies--then you will believe he knew it
of his own knowledge. Bethink thee, my King--spur thy memory--it
was the last, the very LAST thing thou didst that day before thou
didst rush forth from the palace, clothed in my rags, to punish
the soldier that insulted me."
A silence ensued, undisturbed by a movement or a whisper, and all
eyes were fixed upon the new-comer, who stood, with bent head and
corrugated brow, groping in his memory among a thronging multitude
of valueless recollections for one single little elusive fact,
which, found, would seat him upon a throne--unfound, would leave
him as he was, for good and all--a pauper and an outcast. Moment
after moment passed--the moments built themselves into minutes--
still the boy struggled silently on, and gave no sign. But at
last he heaved a sigh, shook his head slowly, and said, with a
trembling lip and in a despondent voice--
"I call the scene back--all of it--but the Seal hath no place in
it." He paused, then looked up, and said with gentle dignity, "My
lords and gentlemen, if ye will rob your rightful sovereign of his
own for lack of this evidence which he is not able to furnish, I
may not stay ye, being powerless. But--"
"Oh, folly, oh, madness, my King!" cried Tom Canty, in a panic,
"wait!--think! Do not give up!--the cause is not lost! Nor SHALL
be, neither! List to what I say--follow every word--I am going to
bring that morning back again, every hap just as it happened. We
talked--I told you of my sisters, Nan and Bet--ah, yes, you
remember that; and about mine old grandam--and the rough games of
the lads of Offal Court--yes, you remember these things also; very
well, follow me still, you shall recall everything. You gave me
food and drink, and did with princely courtesy send away the
servants, so that my low breeding might not shame me before them--
ah, yes, this also you remember."
As Tom checked off his details, and the other boy nodded his head
in recognition of them, the great audience and the officials
stared in puzzled wonderment; the tale sounded like true history,
yet how could this impossible conjunction between a prince and a
beggar-boy have come about? Never was a company of people so
perplexed, so interested, and so stupefied, before.
"For a jest, my prince, we did exchange garments. Then we stood
before a mirror; and so alike were we that both said it seemed as
if there had been no change made--yes, you remember that. Then
you noticed that the soldier had hurt my hand--look! here it is, I
cannot yet even write with it, the fingers are so stiff. At this
your Highness sprang up, vowing vengeance upon that soldier, and
ran towards the door--you passed a table--that thing you call the
Seal lay on that table--you snatched it up and looked eagerly
about, as if for a place to hide it--your eye caught sight of--"
"There, 'tis sufficient!--and the good God be thanked!" exclaimed
the ragged claimant, in a mighty excitement. "Go, my good St.
John--in an arm-piece of the Milanese armour that hangs on the
wall, thou'lt find the Seal!"
"Right, my King! right!" cried Tom Canty; "NOW the sceptre
England is thine own; and it were better for him that would
dispute it that he had been born dumb! Go, my Lord St. John, give
thy feet wings!"
The whole assemblage was on its feet now, and well-nigh out of its
mind with uneasiness, apprehension, and consuming excitement. On
the floor and on the platform a deafening buzz of frantic
conversation burst forth, and for some time nobody knew anything
or heard anything or was interested in anything but what his
neighbour was shouting into his ear, or he was shouting into his
neighbour's ear. Time--nobody knew how much of it--swept by
unheeded and unnoted. At last a sudden hush fell upon the house,
and in the same moment St. John appeared upon the platform, and
held the Great Seal aloft in his hand. Then such a shout went up--
"Long live the true King!"
For five minutes the air quaked with shouts and the crash of
musical instruments, and was white with a storm of waving
handkerchiefs; and through it all a ragged lad, the most
conspicuous figure in England, stood, flushed and happy and proud,
in the centre of the spacious platform, with the great vassals of
the kingdom kneeling around him.
Then all rose, and Tom Canty cried out--
"Now, O my King, take these regal garments back, and give poor
Tom, thy servant, his shreds and remnants again."
The Lord Protector spoke up--
"Let the small varlet be stripped and flung into the Tower."
But the new King, the true King, said--
"I will not have it so. But for him I had not got my crown again-
-none shall lay a hand upon him to harm him. And as for thee, my
good uncle, my Lord Protector, this conduct of thine is not
grateful toward this poor lad, for I hear he hath made thee a
duke"--the Protector blushed--"yet he was not a king; wherefore
what is thy fine title worth now? To-morrow you shall sue to me,
THROUGH HIM, for its confirmation, else no duke, but a simple
earl, shalt thou remain."
Under this rebuke, his Grace the Duke of Somerset retired a little
from the front for the moment. The King turned to Tom, and said
kindly--"My poor boy, how was it that you could remember where I
hid the Seal when I could not remember it myself?"
"Ah, my King, that was easy, since I used it divers days."
"Used it--yet could not explain where it was?"
"I did not know it was THAT they wanted. They did not describe
it, your Majesty."
"Then how used you it?"
The red blood began to steal up into Tom's cheeks, and he dropped
his eyes and was silent.
"Speak up, good lad, and fear nothing," said the King. "How
you the Great Seal of England?"
Tom stammered a moment, in a pathetic confusion, then got it out--
"To crack nuts with!"
Poor child, the avalanche of laughter that greeted this nearly
swept him off his feet. But if a doubt remained in any mind that
Tom Canty was not the King of England and familiar with the august
appurtenances of royalty, this reply disposed of it utterly.
Meantime the sumptuous robe of state had been removed from Tom's
shoulders to the King's, whose rags were effectually hidden from
sight under it. Then the coronation ceremonies were resumed; the
true King was anointed and the crown set upon his head, whilst
cannon thundered the news to the city, and all London seemed to
rock with applause.
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Prince and the Pauper